Which Governor General Established The Fort William College In Calcutta?

Which Governor General Established The Fort William College In Calcutta

The Most Honourable The Marquess Wellesley KG PC PC (Ire)
Portrait from the studio of Thomas Lawrence
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
In office 8 December 1821 – 27 February 1828
Monarch George IV
Prime Minister
  • The Earl of Liverpool
  • George Canning
  • The Viscount Goderich
Preceded by The Earl Talbot
Succeeded by The Marquess of Anglesey
In office 12 September 1833 – November 1834
Monarch William IV
Prime Minister The Earl Grey
Preceded by The Marquess of Anglesey
Succeeded by The Earl of Haddington
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
In office 6 December 1809 – 4 March 1812
Monarch George III
Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
Preceded by The Earl Bathurst
Succeeded by Viscount Castlereagh
Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William
In office 18 May 1796 – 30 July 1805
Monarch George III
Prime Minister
  • William Pitt the Younger
  • Henry Addington
Preceded by Sir Alured Clarke (provisional)
Succeeded by The Marquess Cornwallis
Personal details
Born 20 June 1760 Dangan Castle, County Meath
Died 26 September 1842 (aged 82) Knightsbridge, London
Resting place Eton College Chapel
Nationality British
Political party Tory
Spouses
  • Hyacinthe-Gabrielle Roland ​ ​ ( m. ; died ) ​
  • Marianne (Caton) Patterson ​ ​ ( m.) ​
Parents
  • Garret Wesley (father)
  • Anne Hill-Trevor (mother)
Alma mater Christ Church, Oxford

Richard Colley Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley, KG, KP, PC, PC (Ire) (20 June 1760 – 26 September 1842) was an Anglo-Irish politician and colonial administrator, He was styled as Viscount Wellesley until 1781, when he succeeded his father as 2nd Earl of Mornington,

Who was the Governor General when Fort William College was established?

Fort William College an orientalist training centre set up by Governor General lord wellesley in 1800 within the Fort William complex. Its object was to effect moral and intellectual improvement of the newly recruited European civil servants. Wellesley envisioned ruling British India efficiently with the help of an enlightened and trained bureaucracy.

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Under the existing system the young civilians, who were mostly between fifteen and seventeen years of age, were posted to districts without giving them any institutional training in local history, languages and the art of administration. For governance point of view, it seemed to empire builder entirely unacceptable.

Wellesley felt that both academic and moral training were necessary to make the new arrivals capable of facing the challenge of governing an alien people. Thus he set up the College of Fort William, Calcutta in 1800. Like the calcutta madrasa of warren hastinga and the Benaras Hindu College of Jonathan Duncan, Wellesley’s college was not, in fact, a fully government institution.

Its expenses were designed to have been met by contributions from all the civilians in India and an uncertain allocation that was to come from the operation of the Government Printing Press. A Department was established for each major language and culture of India. For each Department there was one Professor and a couple of Assistant teachers.

Persian, which was still used as the court language of India, had a Department headed by Neile B Edmonstone, then a Persian translator to the Government. His Assistant teacher was John H Harington, a Judge of Sadar Diwani Adalat and Francis Gladwin, a soldier diplomat.

  • For Arabic studies, Wellesley engaged Lt John Baillie, who was considered to be the best Arabist after William Jones.
  • The Hindustani Language Department was entrusted to John B Gilchrist, an Indologist of great repute.
  • HT Colebroooke, the famous orientalist, was selected to head the Sanskrit Department.

William Cary, a non-civilian missionary and a specialist in many Indian languages including Bangla, was selected to head the Department of Vernacular Languages. All the Departments had a number of Pundits and Munshis who made up the native element of the College staff.

  1. In all, twelve Faculties were established by 1805.
  2. The pay scale of the staff was not uniformly designed.
  3. For example, while the European Faculty members received salaries from 1500 to 3000 rupees a month, their Indian colleagues, who were their language tutors and assistants, received salaries ranging from 40 to 200 rupees only.
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A College Council consisting of Faculty Professors administered the College. Matters of discipline were entrusted to two clergymen, the provost and the vice-provost. Fort William College, Kolkata At the apex of the college administration was the Governor General himself.

Who opened Fort William College in Calcutta and why?

Fort William College was founded on 10 July 1800 in Kolkata, British India and it’s established by Lord Wellesley. The main purpose of establishing this college was to be to teach Indian Languages to British officers to make the administration smooth and swift.

Who was the first professor of Fort William College?

As unbelievable as this might seem, it was a college set up by the British in 1800 that inadvertently became the centre of the earliest attempts to study and codify both Hindi and Urdu. The story of how Kolkata’s Fort William College, set up to churn out ‘Indiamen’ to man the offices of the rapidly expanding British East India Company, ended up becoming a centre for Indian languages while also triggering a larger renaissance of ideas is fascinating.

Till the 1700s, the Company had paid little heed to training its employees. The ‘Indiamen’, as they were called, were drawn from a small pool of British families who were friends and relatives of those already involved with the Company, and there was little focus on their knowledge or abilities. By the 1800s, the British territories in India had expanded greatly and there was an urgent need for a more thoroughly organised administration.

This required trained men who could not only communicate in the local languages but also understand the country and the people they were rapidly gaining control over. The Indiamen were supposed to learn the native languages and were even paid a small sum called the Munshis’ allowance, to pay their Indian language tutors or munshis, Lord Wellesley | Wikimedia Commons It was to train these British officials that Fort William College was established by Lord Richard Wellesley (Governor-General of Bengal from 1798 to 1805) in 1800. On the 24th of November that year, the first lectures were delivered at the college, in an assortment of tongues – Arabic, Persian and Hindustani.

The college aimed to create civil servants who were familiar with Indian languages, history, culture and local laws. Alongside, they would also receive training in Western languages and the art of administration. However, Fort William College faced a setback almost as soon as it started. Since the college had been established by Lord Wellesley without the knowledge or permission of the Court of Directors of the East India Company in London, the Company’s headquarters ordered its closure.

Despite Wellesley’s best efforts, the Court of Directors had its way. While Fort William College was not shut down, its purpose was diluted as the Company established its own college in England – the East India Company College in Haileybury in Hertfordshire, in 1806, to train future Indiamen. The campus of the East India Company College in Haileybury | Wikimedia Commons Wellesley, however, managed to ensure that the college survived. Even though the role of the college in the education of future East India Company officers took a knock, the focus of Fort William College shifted to training officers in Indian languages.

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Who is the first Governor-General of India?

William Bentinck was the first Governor-General of India.

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